Maybe in a few years I'll look back at this and reflect.
I had a friend come over and take a look at it and see if we can come to a consensus on what might have caused this. We fist looked at the adjuster to see if it came undone for some reason and saw nothing other than moving the spring to a different hole to put more tension on it. Not seeing a smoking gun we chose to just put it all back together but immediately had problems keeping the cable on the cable guide.
We took it all apart and looked over all the pieces and noticed a flaw in the cable guide. There was a flat spot from manufacturing, this was a part not replaced on this side as all we needed was a new cable. We compared it to the new guide that came in the recent kit and that is when we saw the problem. We were still not happy with the guide and felt the channel wasn't as deep as they once were, dug through the parts bin and found some old ones that were much better.
We were confident that the cabled slipped off the guided and with the changes everything should be fine.